The assessment will undergo five phases starting with the Measuring of hop count; this section will include the tracing of certain websites like, and many more with the help of using the traceroute command which will be implemented on the Linux terminal. As the command will allow hop count to reach the request to the destination. The second section will be used to set the parameters that will be used in tracing the website. These parameters include -n, w 1. Moving further to the next section, the measurement of delay and jitter will take place and various parameters like standard deviation, round trip time are taken from the ping activity. The next section will consist of bandwidth-delay product that will be measured with the help of iperf utility. The iperf utility will assist the user to calculate the bandwidth in kb/s along with the transfer rate in kb and the interval of the packet. Moving further to the last section that includes the submission of file in the ford of a word document.

Measuring the hop count

Command line parameters -n, w

Hop count for,,,,,,,,,

Hop Count versus Geographical Distance

After measuring the hop count, a graph will be plotted between the geographical distance and hop count for each website. Along with this, all the attributes like hop count, distance, location, address, minimum, average and mean deviation on a spreadsheet are plotted

Measuring Delay & Jitter

In the task, the average round trip time is considered as the delay whereas the mean standard deviation is selected as the jitter response.

Delay versus Geographical Distance

The delay with respect to geographical distance is shared in the below bar-graph where the delay is represented in milliseconds and the geographical distance covered is in kilometres.

Jitter versus Geographical Distance

The almost identical pattern of the graph is witnessed as we plot the jitter-distance where jitter is calculated in milliseconds with respect to the coverage in kilometres.  After that a comparison of the above graphs will take place.

Measuring the bandwidth-delay

After performing the iperf utility the bandwidth for all the above servers are calculated and in terms of evidence all the snapshots are provided in the appendix section. The bandwidth calculated from the public server is utilized along with the mean deviation value as delay from the ping utility in order to calculate the Bandwidth-Delay Product BDP.

Bandwidth versus Delay

The bandwidth in context with the delay witnessed in the servers which is analysed in terms of latency. And all the patterns will be compared.

Bandwidth-Delay Product versus Hop Count

Lastly the bandwidth-delay product graph is plotted in comparison with the hop count.

COMP90007 Internet Technologies Network Analysis Project, Project 1 Semester 2, 2019 Due Date: Wednesday September 18, 11:30am 1 IntroductionThis project forms 10% of your nal mark. The key output of this project is a report which has to follow a certain format (refer to Section 5 of this document). The project is about measuring bandwidth, delay, and jitter in networks. These tasks will be similar to those you have performed in the laboratory sessions held in the tutorials. It is recommended that you perform these tasks in a consistent networking environment to reduce the variance in your report. Important Note: As evidence of your work, when you run the following commands, please remember to take screenshots of the results obtained and place it in the appendix of your report. Reports failing to do so will be penalized. All plots, however, should be placed in the main body of your report where you will explain the observations being derived. 2 Measuring the hop count In this section, we will be observing the number of intermediate hosts in the route taken to communicate with a remote server and its relation to the physical geographical distance. To count the number of hops taken to reach a destination host, the command tracert will be used (or its corresponding equivalent, depending on your operating system). This utility should be pre-installed on your operating system. The utility can be invoked by launching a command line terminal and typing in the command. An example output of the traceroute command (on OS X) and tracert command (on Windows) is as follows: $ traceroute -nw1 traceroute to (, 64 hops max, 52 byte packets 1 533.676 ms 1.063 ms 0.940 ms 2 27.872 ms 28.137 ms 28.293 ms 3 28.647 ms 28.577 ms 28.085 ms 4 28.299 ms 28.469 ms 28.332 ms 5 29.626 ms 28.871 ms 29.841 ms 6 31.320 ms 28.722 ms 29.135 ms 7 29.668 ms 29.096 ms 28.660 ms 8 * * * 9 * * * 10 * * * 11 957.521 ms 33.475 ms 29.891 ms 12 29.940 ms 29.260 ms 30.020 ms In this section of the project, you are interested in the number of hops it takes to reach the destination server. In the example above, the number of hops to reach is 12. Based on the number of measurements you will be taking, there are some useful command line parameters you may wish to take advantage of, to speed up the time it takes to gather 1 results. The help documentation for the traceroute utility can be accessed by running man traceroute or tracert /? on Windows. You may also wish to investigate shell scripting to automate the collection of results, but this is not required for the project. Any scripts you do choose to write, however, must be included in the Appendix . 2.1 Specic task description (2 marks) Please include all raw measurements in the Appendix. 2.1 What do the command line parameters -n w 1 (equivalently -d -w 1 on Windows) mean in the example given above and what is the importance in using them? 2.2 Determine the hop count for the following hosts given in Table 1. It is recommended that students nd one more public iperf server other than the ones listed here to gather their results. Table 1: List of publiciperfhosts Host Location USA France Germany France Russia Indonesia USA Netherlands Ukraine Determine the approximate geographical distance for the above hosts and plot the hop count versus the approximate geographical distance from Melbourne. Do you observe a correlation? Why? Why not? Explain your rationale with respect to networking concepts. You may use any scientic computing package or spreadsheet software to do your plotting, for example, Microsoft Excel. For nding out the physical grographical distance you may use any tool or applica- tion available online, for example, you may use a combination of: and or website-location.html and or anything of your choice. However, do make sure to document it and provide the appropriate reference to that application/ tool/ software used. Note: The servers listed in Table 1 are public servers and are not maintained by the University of Melbourne, hence they are likely to go down at any point in time. Based on past experience, it would be advisable to conduct your tests on these as soon as possible (ASAP) rather than leave it till the end of the time frame because there is a high probability that these servers might not be available and this cannot be used as an excuse for a late submission. If these servers stop responding then please visit the link: servers.php and nd your own servers (anything that is responding) or feel free to nd any public iperf server from the internet, including deploying your own iperf server. 3 Measuring delay and jitter In this section, you will be measuring the delay and jitter of the hosts listed in Table 1, located in different geographical locations. 2 We will be using the ping utility, to measure the round-trip delay of packets. The ping utility should be pre-installed on all major operating systems. The standard deviation of the round-trip delay time will be taken as the value forjitterfor this project. The standard deviation measures the variation in a set of data. It is dened as the square root of the variance and is expressed as follows: = v u u t 1 N 1 N X i =1 ( x i  x )2 where  xis the mean of the set of data. Details of this simple statistical measure can be found in many sites online if you do not remember this from high school years. A sample output of the ping utility is shown below, but this output will vary depending on your operating system. $ ping PING ( 56 data bytes 64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 ttl=124 time=3.364 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=124 time=3.416 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=124 time=3.730 ms ˆC --- ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 3.364/3.503/3.730/0.162 ms In the output above, various statistics, including the mean and standard deviation, were calculated for you by the utility. It is expected that you record all the values of delay and perform your own calculations to nd the mean values and their standard deviation, to conrm the result. 3.1 Specic task description (2 marks) For this section, you may want to consider the user-facing implications of high delay and high jitter in networking applications, especially for applications sensitive to the affect of high delay and high jitter. Please include all raw measurements in the Appendix. 3.1 Measure the round-trip delay for the following hosts. Make three delay measurements (run this command 3 times - not 1 command gathering 9-10 rows of ICMP responses) of each host and nd the average round-trip delay and jitter by calculating the standard deviation, for each host in Table 1. For each of the above hosts, plot the average round-trip delay versus the approximate physical geographical distance to the server. Do the same with the jitter (i.e. jitter vs geo distance). 3.2 From the two plots above, do you observe any correlation between delay and jitter as a function of distance? Why? Why not? Explain your results with reference to the network environment in which you were collecting your results (this includes metrics like your download/ upload speed, users sharing the network, load on network through other apps, etc) and how does your networking environment inuence your results obtained (provide examples)? 4 Measuring the bandwidth-delay product In this section, we will be measuring the bandwidth of different hosts in order to determine the bandwidth-delay product, using the results from the previous sections. The utility that will be used to perform bandwidth measurements will be the iperf utility. This command line utility is available for download for all operating systems from Alternatively you may choose to use the package manager for your relevant operating system. 3 There are two modes of operation in iperf . The server mode will host a server which will listen to incoming requests from a client. An iperf instance running in client mode will connect to the server, and packets will be exchanged and timed between the two hosts to calculate the bandwidth. In this project, we will be runningiperfin client mode. A sample output of iperf in client mode is shown below, noting the -c ag to designate operating in client mode. $ iperf -c ------------------------------------------------------------ Client connecting to, TCP port 5001 TCP window size: 129 KByte (default) ------------------------------------------------------------ [ 5] local port 51878 connected with port 5001 [ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth [ 5] 0.0-106.7 sec 128 KBytes 9.83 Kbits/sec (Note: server) For in Table 1, we may need to use the port 5002, so the command will be: ”iperf3 -c -p 5002” for this host. Also, some iperf servers respond to iperf2, rest to iperf3 so you might want to use both iperf2 and iperf3 to verify if the server is responsive. 4.1 Specic task description (6 marks) Please include all raw measurements in the Appendix as usual. 4.1 What does the bandwidth-delay product tell us about the networks? Collect three set of measurements (run this command 3 times) measuring the bandwidth of the public iperf hosts in Table 1 and nd the mean bandwidth for each host. 4.2 Take the mean bandwidth and calculate the bandwidth-delay product in kilobits. You may use the mean round-trip delay time from your ping experiments to use as the delay time. Plot a bar chart for each host showing your results. You may wish to use a logarithmic scale, if appropriate. Explain your results making reference to your networking environment in which you performed your measurements. How do your results reect upon your actual internet link speed and how does your network environment inuence your results obtained (provide examples)? Are there outliers in your data? 4.3 Plot the bandwidth-delay product versus the hop count, this time omitting any outliers. Is there any correlation? If not, why not? 4.4 When running your tests for bandwidth, delay, and jitter, were there any variables which may have affected the accuracy or reliability of your results? How might you improve upon these (explain your rationale with examples from your experience)? 5 Project Administration This project is to be performed individually and is worth 10% of your overall mark in the subject. 5.1 Getting help If you have any questions, the LMS discussion board will be a useful resource in resolving any issues. If your concern is a personal matter, then you should email the subject coordinator. Any answers posted by the subject coordinator or the academic staff on the LMS discussion board will be considered as part of the project specication. Any announcements made about the assignment in the lectures will be considered part of the project specication. In addition, please keep an eye on any LMS announcements to any changes made to the project specication. 4 5.2 Report submission The deadline for the nal report submission is as specied at the start of this project document.The report will consist of all relevant discussion, graphs, data and answers from the experi- mentation conducted in this project. You must place the raw data as screens or copy paste them to the Appendix of the document, however, the diagrams like charts, ow diagrams (if any) and so on relevant to the discussion will be placed in the main document and not the appendix. Every diagram and/or raw measure used for a specic question must be referred to (using a designated reference scheme) for us to verify the result. All plots and gures must be appropriately labelled. Any information obtained that is not of your own work must be cited. The report must be submitted as a PDF le via Turnitin on the LMS (will be available for submission soon). Please include your name and login user name on the top of the rst page. The report is to be formatted on A4 sized paper in 10 pt text, 1.5 line spacing and a minimum 3.8 cm margins on the left and right sides, single column. It is highly recommended that students use the respective formatting scheme outlined by us in the Format Guideline Document and here as massive deviation from it may incur relevant penalties.The report should not exceed a maximum of 10 pages (excluding appendix) else relevant penalties will apply. 5